About this book
Inclusive education and lifelong learning are essential entities in all educational settings. Any form of marginalisation acts is not acceptable if inclusiveness in education is to be upheld. It is very important to note that embracing an inclusive environment and lifelong learning in a diverse population will lead to an impactful learning process. With the multidimensionality of perspectives and endeavours represented in this book, it is certain that we can approach and communicate the very foundation of inclusive education and lifelong learning. It is noted that learning does not stop in the classroom or after the completion of degree(s), therefore, inclusive education is a common ground for all without a string of prejudice. Without doubt inclusive education and lifelong learning are fundamentally integrated into the social-anthropological paradigms that respect the voices of “significant others”. These “significant others” are students, teachers and policy makers who are relevant to learning, education policies and management. Inclusive education and lifelong learning embrace learner-centred approaches and ensure equal access to education and constant training for every individual regardless of his/her gender, age, socio-economic status and/or physical or mental condition. Inclusive systems and thought processes require changes at all levels of the society. The changes are an investment in the future and will help contribute to social development, human capital formation, and meaningful life experiences. The core of inclusive education and lifelong learning are differentiated instruction and assessment as well as tailored learning opportunities. The great virtue of this book is that it goes beyond practices and methods that are used in inclusive education and lifelong learning. It argues that the state of inclusiveness and lifelong learning develops a culture of free learning, which in turn transforms learners from passive agents to active and reflective co-creators of knowledge and change. The content of this book paves the way for an effective inclusive education by putting emphasis on innovative pedagogical methods and evidence-based techniques.
Table of contents
Chapter 1 (Jennifer T. Stephens and Laura M. Pipe)
Igniting Curiosity: How To Develop Lifelong Critical Consciousness
The Chapter One presents the application of Toward a Liberated Learning Spirit (TALLS). Drawing from scholarship and activism around reflection, supportive resistance, asset-based learning, and direct action, the TALLS model for developing critical consciousness moves learners from passive and detached receivers of information to active and reflective co-creators of knowledge and change. Curiosity is a basic desire to know or learn something, and, as such, seems fundamental to any learning process. Yet, many Western approaches to teaching and learning reinforce conditions that stymy curiosity and lifelong learning. Through structural inequalities that shape learning spaces and the pedagogical and curricular design decisions that privilege certain ways of knowing at the exclusion of others, the formal learning process is often reduced to a transactional condition in which a credentialed authority imparts specific knowledge on passive learners, who regurgitate what they have been taught in exchange for advancement toward their own societally-valued credentials. Therefore, many students get back to the business of lifelong learning only after they have finished their schooling.
Chapter 2 (Brett J. Holt)
Establishing Lernfreiheit and Lehrfreiheit Culture: Challenging Fear and False Expertise
The Chapter Two explores the five fear generators and applies examples of how fear can negatively affect an established academic culture of lehrfreiheit and lernfreiheit. The author will conclude with a final discussion explaining why both teachers and students should establish a culture of lernfreiheit and lehrfreiheit and include strategies to develop a culture of free learning and teaching. Lehrfreiheit and lernfreiheit became popular throughout the world and the foundational basis for academic freedom. Most students welcome the freedom to learn while most academics welcome the freedom to teach. However, the author alerts the reader to two specific dangers threatening both freedoms to teach and the freedom to learn. Therefore, in order to establish an academic culture based on lernfreiheit and lehrfreiheit, it is necessary to challenge false expertise and fear generators.
Chapter 3 (Ruby Hanson and Charles Hanson)
A Better World Through the Integration of Sustainability and Humanitarianism in Chemistry Education
The Chapter Three describes an approach to introduce and teach the concepts of sustainability and humanitarianism as emerging paradigms in a teacher training institution within a discourse on other researchers’ views. The interest in teaching chemistry by focusing on concepts for sustainable development and humanitarianism stems from environmental concerns with plastic wastes, illegal logging, illegal mining, and land degradation, that the country of this researcher is faced with. As educators, we are interested in educating future generations so that they can cope with environmental challenges that their country and other nations face. The microscale approach could be one way out that most developing and emergent economies need to close the gap in acquiring scientific knowledge in an ecologically acceptable manner to save existing spheres and posterity.
Chapter 4 (Lisa R. Merriweather, Niesha Douglas, Cathy D. Howell and Anna Sanczyk)
Out with the Old, in with the New: What the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Got Right about Stem Doctoral Mentoring
The Chapter Four focuses on Doctorate in Philosophy (PhD), as the peak of academic achievement in STEM. The modern PhD, for most degree programs, follows the format developed by Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, Germany, in which students undertake an intensive course of study and complete a research project that is defended before select scholars in the field and academic units. Academic coursework is classroom and lab-based, requiring most students to be accepted or invited into a lab by a supervising faculty. Learners typically pass qualifying or comprehensive exams in addition to completion of the classroom-based study and research. The chapter begins with an overview of the aforementioned qualitative study followed by an overview of best STEM education practices according to the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. It concludes with comparison of those best practices with the study’s findings to ascertain key considerations for STEM doctoral mentoring.
Chapter 5 (Gladys Ingasia Ayaya)
Incorporating Learners’ Voices in Designing Inclusive Teaching Strategies for Teachers of Full-Service Schools in South Africa
The Chapter Five presents a base for further research and discussions about the enhancement of inclusive teaching and learning in inclusive schools using learners’ voices. The study took place only in Johannesburg East Education District and the findings might not be applicable to other school contexts. The importance of inclusive teaching and learning as a central resource in the planning and implementation of measures towards developing intellectual capabilities of a child is well supported by research. This chapter is a sound contribution of how to use Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology that required observations, interviewing and focus group meetings, a group of 20 learners at a full-service (inclusive) school in Johannesburg East District were engaged in a research project over a six-month period. Results from an inductive analysis of the qualitative data revealed that at the start of the research, many of the learners felt unwelcome in the classroom and that their learning needs were not being met because the teachers did not fully understand how to teach in an inclusive classroom environment, and that their teaching practices were not necessarily supporting inclusive education.
Chapter 6 (Sabrina A. Brinson)
Utilizing Culturally Sustaining Children’s Books as Curricula: The Antidote for Implicit Invisibility and Marginalizing Students
The Chapter Six focuses on the following questions – How can we cure the generational marginalization plaguing the educational arena? and How does it feel as a student to be an afterthought, a fleeting thought, or a superficial thought? How can valuable lessons from compelling stories and artwork be disseminated? The Author explores how culturally sustaining children’s books can also facilitate standards in other content areas (e.g., social studies and writing). As a result, a pivotal accountability action step requires key stakeholders (e.g., educational administrators, faculty, and staff) to veer off the path of least resistance and genuinely champion the on-going utilization of culturally sustaining children’s books as curricula to educate, embrace, validate, support, and advance the upward mobility of all students. The multifaceted effectiveness of culturally sustaining children’s books as curricula (K – 5) and demonstrated the productive antidote to eliminate implicit invisibility, “isms,” and other unfair practices of generational marginalization plaguing students in the educational arena; actively engage students in an impactful learning process for a wealth of multifaceted benefits such as increasing reading proficiencies like comprehension and vocabulary, countering aliteracy, and advancing other content areas like social studies; and nurture positive self-affirmations like self-love, self-worth, self-confidence and ingenuity and resilience as functional life skills.
Chapter 7 (Simon A. Tachie)
Skills and Strategies to Improve Challenges Faced by Teachers in the Teaching of Euclidean Geometry
The Chapter Seven explores skills and strategies to improve challenges faced by some teachers in the teaching of Euclidean geometry in South African schools. This is a case study design and was conducted in six purposefully selected high schools in the Motheo District Education base on cluster sampling technique. Classroom observations, and focus group interviews were used for data collection. Six high school teachers who teach geometry in grades 7-12 were sampled for the study, one from each grade were observed and interviewed. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes and patterns. The main findings of the research revealed that training of teachers in collaboration with the Department of Education using mathematical modelling activities as well as relevant skills and strategies has increased both teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of teaching mathematics, and their instructional practices as well as performance in class in teaching of geometry in schools for better understanding of learners. The study also revealed that the majority of teachers who went to technical schools have more developed content knowledge to teach geometry with ease since they engaged in more practically oriented activities during the period of their training due to an area of specialisation with which they were familiar.
Chapter 8 (Vollan O. Ochieng, Brenda A. Wawire, Razak M. Gyasi and Catherine Asego)
Utility and Implications of Using Education Technologies as Distance Learning Solutions for Inclusive Education and Lifelong Learning in Africa
The Chapter Eight takes a close look at the usefulness and intimations of using EdTechs as a learning alternative for distance learning for both inclusive and lifelong learning in the African continent. The chapter has nine (9) sections, with the first eight sections each highlighting the linkage between EdTechs as a catalyst for both inclusive education (IE) and lifelong learning (LLL). The foregoing evidence indicate that digital technology is the future of education, and if well harnessed and adequately implemented among African countries, the continent would be in a better trajectory in achieving the EFA goal. Further, it would enable the continent to fast-track the gains of education through inclusive education, provision of quality education in an equal and equitable manner. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the resulting massive migration to technology-enabled education provisioning has magnified the place of digital technology in education’s provision and development. African countries must therefore capitalize on the steps and gains already made towards the EdTechs’ adoption and adaptation and build on it by expanding EdTechs’ programs or interventions in their jurisdiction. It is thus evident that EdTechs is a critical tool for building back better on education.
Chapter 9 (Miriam Colleran)
Education and Serious Illness in Children and Adolescents
Finally, the Chapter Nine presents the educational needs of children and adolescents with chronic and serious illnesses, and students who sadly experience chronic serious illnesses such as cystic fibrosis, cancers, and autoimmune diseases. Children and adolescents with chronic, serious illnesses can experience physical, psychological, and emotional effects which may hamper their attendance and engagement with school and their educational attainment. School and regular school attendance have both a normalcy effect and can impact on the quality of life of these students. Nonetheless, plans are also needed for illness related school absences. Options to support students include additional support at school, hospital school during hospitalisations and home tuition. Forward planning of an integrated, interdisciplinary, individualised, student centred plan can be of benefit. Further research is needed to optimise educational attainment and the associated quality of life for these students.
Books for you
Inclusive Education and Lifelong Learning
Charles A. Shoniregun
Jennifer T. Stephens, Laura M. Pipe, Brett J. Holt, Ruby Hanson, Charles Hanson, Lisa R. Merriweather, Niesha Douglas, Cathy D. Howell, Anna Sanczyk, Gladys Ingasia Ayaya, Sabrina A. Brinson, Simon A. Tachie, Vollan O. Ochieng, Brenda A. Wawire, Razak M. Gyasi, Catherine Asego, Miriam Colleran
ISBN 978-1-913572-18-1 (Softcover)
ISBN 978-1-913572-12-9 (Hardcover)
|Number of Pages
i – xix, 171
Inclusive Education, Lifelong Learning